Some two thousand miles away the victorious Allies divided the territory of south Russia into two “spheres of influence”, a French one in Ukraine and the Crimea and a British in the North Caucasus. Russia’s role in the Civil War was more palpable than just expressing diplomatic support.  The Second Polish Republic, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia formed their own armies immediately after the abolition of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty and the start of the Soviet westward offensive in November 1918..  The Bolsheviks’ demand for immediate social reform and for withdrawal from the “imperialist” war attracted increasing mass support. Farms produced only 37 % of the normal production. The reds wanted their absolute power to remain intact; Whites where made up of many different powers including: The foreign powers led by the generals: Wrangel,Yudenich and Denikin. The Soviets acceded to a peace treaty, and the formal agreement, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, was ratified on 6 March. On the general situation see Rabinowitch, Alexander: The Bolsheviks in Power. Intervention in the Russian Civil War, 1917-1920, Chapel Hill 1995. Citizenship, Identity, and the Creation of the Soviet State, 1914-1922, Cambridge 2008. A further 50,000 may have been victims of the corresponding "White Terror". Figes, Orlando: The Red Army and Mass Mobilisation during the Russian Civil War, 1918-1920, in: Past and Present 129 (1990), pp. A recent case study discussing Viatka Province, where the policies of Kolchak and Communists competed for peasant support, is Retish, Aaron: Russia's Peasants in Revolution and Civil War. The failure of the Orel offensive was followed by the collapse of the AFSR between November 1919 and January 1920. Kolchak’s train retreated east to Irkutsk, where the admiral was handed over by his Czechoslovak bodyguards. The rapid advance of the Red Army towards the Vistula River and Warsaw raised the stakes of the campaign. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. Another 5 million are believed to have died in the ensuing famines of 1921-1922, directly caused by the economic disruption of the war. General Anton Denikin (1872-1947) succeeded him, and during the summer the Volunteers were able, with counter-revolutionary Kuban Cossacks, to take control in the Kuban. Lenin forced his comrades to accept the harsh enemy terms, based on the need for a “breathing space”. The Russian Civil War (1919-22) in contrast created refugees fron one emd of the Tsarist Empire to another. The Communist government in Moscow was able to maintain control over central Russia in 1919-1920 partly because it was more sensitive to popular demands than were its White enemies. In May 1918 it was making its way out of Russia with the aim of joining the Allied forces in France. Holquist, Peter: Making War, Forging Revolution. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. After the autumn 1918 retreat across the Urals of the Czechoslovaks and anti-Bolshevik forces, the Soviet position there had seemed more secure. ), Secondly, in November 1918 an authoritarian, ostensibly all-Russian, government was created in Omsk (Siberia) under an Allied-supported leader, Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak (1874-1920). Russia; Civil War; Bolsheviks; Communists; Whites; mobilization, International Responses to the Russian Civil War (Russian Empire), Austro-Hungarian troops executing prisoners, 1918, Canadian Expeditionary Force in Vladivostok, Bolshevik demonstrations against the Allied intervention, “The Landing of the Japanese Army, Welcomed by Every Nation, at Vladivostok“, print, The Czechoslovak Corps and Allied Intervention, South Russia: Russian Nationalists and Cossack Hosts, Soviet Heartland: Consolidation and Mobilization. January 1919- Troops from most Allied nations, who are more abundant after the end of World War I, are sent to Russia to fight with the Whites against the Bolsheviks, largely in Siberia through the Eastern city of Vladivostok. In mid-December 1919 a withdrawal was organized by Walter von Eberhardt from Lithuania to East Prussia, finally back on German soil. In February 1920, after a brief trial, he was shot. The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian Empires 1908-1918, Cambridge 2011. Superimposed on these three conflicts were outside forces, the Central Powers and the Allies, which tried to exploit the situation in Russia to their advantage. The Russian Empire had been in a mixed situation in the early stages of the war.  Other places rejected the authority of the new government, among them the army headquarters at Mogilev (in Belarus), the Cossack (kazak) territories of eastern and southern Russia, and some regions - notably in Ukraine - where a rival claim to power was based on national self-determination.. Bolshevik control was initially confined to a few urban centres. The AFSR had a rudimentary - and essentially reactionary - political outlook, and it was unable to exploit popular dissatisfaction in the Soviet-controlled zone. List of Red Army battles in the Russian Civil War, listed alphabetically with photos, images, and maps when possible. To suggest, moreover, that even the short-lived British and French intervention represented a new departure in armed international politics is unconvincing. It was the precipitating event of the Russian Civil War. This Don government in turn protected the territory of the Kuban Cossacks further south, where Russian nationalist forces of the Volunteer Army were gathering their strength. Denikin had commanded an army group in 1917. ", David G. Kirby, "Revolutionary ferment in Finland and the origins of the civil war 1917–1918. DOI: 10.15463/ie1418.10489. Hagen, Mark von: War in a European Borderland. Russia's Continuum of Crisis, 1914-1921, Cambridge 2002. Those in southern Russia formed the core of the White armies there, and about 30,000 fled Russia with the White armies. Direct action by British, French, American, and Japanese military forces in 1918 was confined to occupation of remote ports in the northern parts of European Russia and of Vladivostok on the Pacific. Brovkin, Vladimir: Behind the Front Lines of the Russian Civil War. One of the main war aims of Imperial Russia in 1914-1917 had been the Turkish straits; now the bedraggled survivors of the White cause, having abandoned the territory of Russia, had to take refuge in Constantinople under Allied protection. Before taking an in-depth look at the continuity between the two conflicts, we need to first establish the boundaries of this multifa… January 1919 – November 1919: White Armies’ advances in the South, East and Northwest of Russia.  The Germans installed a Ukrainian nationalist government in Kiev.  This was achieved without help from the Allies. They always controlled the heartland of the Russian state around Petrograd and Moscow, while their opponents were restricted to the periphery amidst competing political and ethnic interests. In February 1918, when the Bolsheviks withdrew temporarily from the talks, the Central Powers resumed military operations.  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