tragacanth gum nutrition

This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. Privacy Policy Several health benefits are associated with Tragacanth gum. Other Facts of Gum Tragacanth. It is used by manufacturers for hardening calico, crape, etc. Gum tragacanth was traditionally used in thick sauces, pickles, and relishes because of its ability to maintain the desired rheological properties in the acidic conditions normally associated with these products. Helps to get rid from constipation due to its purgative properties. Gond katira (Tragacanth gum) is a natural gum found in the mountain region of Middle East. Here is a table of search results for gum; Food Name: Add to Tracking Add to Compare Create Recipe Add to My Foods. Tragacanth gum is an extremely useful remedy for treating urinary incontinence. gum dragon See gum tragacanth. In a glass, add one teaspoon soaked and puffed gond katira, some rose … It is peach gum, surfacing on diners’ radar in recent years for the large amount of collagen it contains. Tragacanth gum is one of the best remedies to increase libido in men. The pieces are horny in texture, with a short fracture. Terms & conditions The sap-like material (resin) of the plant is used to make medicine. Tragacanth is a plant. 60-70% of the compound) swells to form a gel. Both ribbon and flake gums are available in a variety of particle sizes and viscosities depending on the end uses. Tragacanth is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to natural gums used in food or pharmaceutical products. It is herbal treatment to enlarge breasts. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product. Its long shelf life and film-forming properties make it useful in hair lotions, and hand lotions and creams. The gum is used in vegetable-tanned leather working as an edge slicking and burnishing compound, and is occasionally used as a stiffener in textiles. The gum exudes readily from these cuts in the form of ‘ribbons’ or ‘flakes’ which become brittle on drying. Women become really weak after delivery. Avoid its use in pregnant or breast-feeding patients. According to nutritionist … 99 ($3.29/Ounce) Astragalus gummifer), commonly known as Goat's Thorn or Locoweed. Contraindications have not been identified. Scientific Name(s): Astragalus gummifer Labill., Astragalus Common Name(s): Goat's thorn, Green dragon, Gum dragon, Gum tragacanth, Gummi tragacanthae, Hog gum, Milkvetch, Syrian tragacanth, Tragacanth Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. In the EU, tragacanth (E 413) has been evaluated by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF, 1989) and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, 1987), who both allocated an acceptable daily intake (ADI) ‘not specified’ for this gum. Tragacanthin is composed of uronic acid and arabinose; it dissolves in water to form a viscous colloidal solution, while bassorin swells to form a thick gel.Duke 1992, Khan 2010, Morton 1977, Tischer 2002, Maximum viscosity of tragacanthin is attained only after 24 hours at room temperature or after heating for 8 hours at high temperatures. Tragacanth gum is used in medicinal emulsions, syrups, jellies, ointments, thickening creams, emulsifiers and as a lubricant. Tragacanth is a gum commonly found in the sap of various Middle Eastern legumes. Last updated on Feb 20, 2020. TAISHAN Natural Wild Edible Gum,No Colors,Thread-like,NON-GMO Tragacanth Gum Snow Swallow xueyan 雪燕 250g / 8.8oz 4.0 out of 5 stars 1 $28.99 $ 28 . Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Get it Monday, Jun 15. Gum tragacanth is also used to make a paste used in floral sugar craft to create lifelike flowers on wires used as decorations for cakes, which air-dries brittle and can take colorings. Tara gum is to be used as a replacement for, or in combination with, other permitted gums such as carob bean gum, guar gum, acacia gum, karaya gum, tragacanth gum and xanthan gum. The invention relates to a progesterone tablet characterized in that its excipient content is not more than 45%, preferably not more than 40%, and more preferably not more than 38%, the percentages being expressed by weight relative to the dry matter total tablet. The gum seeps from the plant in twisted ribbons or flakes that can be powdered. level of body and heals the burning inside body. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. It is used extensively in foods and dressings and to thicken ice cream. It has also been used as a binder in the cold-press process and the extrusion process for making candy cigarettes, and lozenges. This gum is tasteless, odorless, water-soluble, viscous obtain from the sap of plant and then dried. A petitioner can request that Health Canada approve a new food additive or a new condition of use for an already approved food additive by filing a food additive submis… © 2020 Healthbenefitstimes. Excessive intake may cause Constipation, Diarrhea, Abdominal Pain, Gas, Hay Fever, and Skin Rash. The gum has generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status as a food additive. Nowadays, the two subjects, safety and nutritional value are resulted to concerns for consumers (Soltanizadeh & Kadivar, 2011). The viscosity of these solutions is generally considered to be the highest among plant gums.Khan 2010. Although Tragacanth gum has a very wide area of applications, it can be utilized as a thickening agent as well as a binder and even stabilizer and in industries like paper making, cosmetics, textile industry and so on but if there is something in it for which it is famous. A daily dosage of Tragacanth can help to increase the size of the breasts of women who have small breasts and want to increase their size. Elucidation of these two words is “goat” and “thorn”, respectively in Greek. Tragacanth gum - has a moisturizing and nutritional effect removes toxins from the body cleansing the food tract reduces weight improves the immune regulation of a person regulates the growth of collagen making the skin strong and elastic. Tragacanth gum is effective in increasing libido and also for treating sexual inadequacy or weakness in men. The gum is obtained from small shrubs of the Astragalus genus, are small, low bushy perennial shrubs having a large tap root along with branches, and grow wildly in the dry deserts and mountainous regions of South West Asia, from Pakistan to Greece, and in particular, in Iran and Turkey. Tragacanth gum showed no evidence of maternal toxicity or teratogenicity after oral administration (as a suspension in corn oil) at levels up to 1200 mg/kg b.w./day to pregnant mice (days 6-16 of gestation) or to pregnant hamsters at dose levels up to 900 mg/kg b.w./day (days 6-10 of gestation). Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. Tragacanth is used both for diarrhea and constipation.. Guar gum, also called guaran, is a galactomannan polysaccharide extracted from guar beans that has thickening and stabilizing properties useful in food, feed, and industrial applications. Rani Edible Gum Whole (Goonder Tragacanth Gum) 14oz (400g) ~ All Natural, Salt-Free | Vegan | No Colors | Gluten Free Ingredients | NON-GMO | Indian Origin 4.2 out of … Gond katira (Tragacanth gum) is a natural gum found in the mountain region of Middle East. Tragacanth acts as a thickening agent to impart proper mouth feel and stability in citrus beverages. Gum ghatti, from the sap of Anogeissus trees; Gum tragacanth (E413), from the sap of Astragalus shrubs; Karaya gum (E416), from the sap of Sterculia trees; Uncharged: Guar gum (E412), from guar beans; Locust bean gum (E410), from the seeds of the carob tree; Beta-glucan, from oat or barley bran; Dammar gum, from the sap of Dipterocarpaceae trees It is used in furniture, floor, and auto polishes. Ponert. Gond is widely used in Ayurvedic medicines due to its therapeutic properties. This is turn helps in stopping a heat stroke. The practice of eating Tragacanth ladoos is very common in India. tragacanth (trăg´əkănth) or gum tragacanth, gummy exudation from the leguminous shrub Astragalus gummifer and related pulse [1] family plants of SE Europe and W Asia. TRAGACANTH GUM Explanation This substance has been evaluated for acceptable daily intake by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (see Annex 1, Ref. Dubble Bubble specialty bubble-gum cigars come in 20 g servings and contain 70 calories, 18 g of carbs and 15 g of sugar 2. Select one or more newsletters to continue. It can set the ph. If you suffer from frequent constipation try taking gum tragacanth powder daily before going to bed. It is effective for treating constipation due to its purgative properties. 539; FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1974, No. It is white to pale yellow in colour but some pieces may have a red tinge. It is obtained through incisions in the stem of the plant. It is also used as a thickening agent in preparing dyes for calico printing, textile dyes, for dressing fabrics, in making glues, for water colors and to produce the gloss in ink. Dubble Bubble Ball Gum is available in 5 g servings containing 20 calories, 5 mg of sodium, 5 g of carbs and 4 g of sugars 2. Tragacanth gum has protein that works as the energy source for the body. Our team of experts are at the ready. The name “tragacanth” comes from the appearance of the exuded gum, which tends to form ribbons similar in appearance to a goat horn (from the Greek “tragos” meaning goat and “akantha” meaning horn). When it comes to taste and scent, it has neither. It is odourless and solutions have an insipid mucilaginous taste. Approved food additives and their permitted conditions of use are set out in the Lists of Permitted Food Additivesthat are incorporated by reference in the MAs and published on Health Canada’s website. It is mostly found in the mountainous regions of the Middle East. The tragacanth species comprises low-growing, thorny shrubs native to the mountainous regions of the Middle East. Other substances have replaced it where toxicity is not an issue, as the proportions of the various chemicals in gum arabic vary widely and make it unpredictable. Overview Information Acacia is the gum that is exuded from the acacia tree. It is also an ingredient in toothpastes, hand lotions, denture adhesives, and vaginal creams and jellies. Check out some health benefits of tragacanth gum below: Treating heat strokeas the gum acts as a cooling agent. The name "tragacanth" derives from the Greek words tragos (meaning "goat") and akantha ("thorn"), which describe the appearance and texture of the crude gum.Khan 2010, USDA 2015, Tragacanth has traditionally been used as an emulsifier, thickening agent, and suspending agent.Morton 1977, Nuttall 1993 It has also been used to manage diarrhea and as a demulcent in cough and cold preparations.Morton 1977, Tragacanth is currently used in foods and dressings, in denture fixatives, and to thicken ice cream;Anderson 1989, Berg 1991 it is also being investigated as a novel drug delivery tool.Kumar 2014, Tragacanth has 2 major constituents: tragacanthin (20% to 30%), a water-soluble fraction consisting of tragacanthic acid and arabinogalactan, and bassorin (60% to 70%), a water-insoluble fraction. It works as a cooling agent for our body and prevent us from heat stroke. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 7 Dec 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 4 Dec 2020), ASHP (updated 3 Dec 2020) and others. Tragacanth gum is an effective aphrodisiac and thus it helps to encourage sexual desire in men. Astracantha tournefortii (Boiss.) Clinical data regarding tragacanth application, other than as a gel, are lacking. It is said to be helpful in reducing tumors. None well documented. Gum Tragacanth A healthy result should fall into the range 0.1 - 1.4 ELISA Index. A report based on cattle and sheep observations suggests that the chemical constituents swainsonine and swainsonine N-oxide, found in Astragalus plants, are teratogenic.Friedman 2000, Panter 2013 However, more studies are needed.Fugh-Berman 2005. Tragacanth gum is a viscous, odorless, tasteless, water-soluble mixture of polysaccharides obtained from sap that is drained from the root of the plant and dried. For this purpose, banana slices were coated in 0.7% solution of each gum and one group remained uncoated as the control. If the stem is slit, soft gum is exuded. over a period of 4 weeks. It is the traditional binder used in the making of artists’ pastels, as it does not adhere to itself the same way other gums (such as gum Arabic) do when dry. It has been used as an adhesive for reconstituted cigar wrapper leaves as well. Tragacanth gum is very helpful during pregnancy. Cupcake World Gum Tragacanth Substitute CMC Sugarcraft Tylo Powder Tylo 500 g (Pack of 2) 4.0 out of 5 stars 1. Gum tragacanth nutritional value is high. 19) in 1969. Tragacanth Gum is the dried, gummy exudation obtained from Astragalus gummifer or other Asiatic species of Astragalus. It may produce allergic symptoms like Asthma or Contact Dermatitis. Unground tragacanth occurs as flattened, lamellated, straight or curved fragments or as spirally twisted pieces 0.5–2.5 mm thick and up to 3 cm in length. Peach gum is the resin from peach and Chinese wild peach trees, already solidified when it is found. In winter, it is generally fried and added to sweets. The aim of this study was producing three types of low‐fat sausage according to reducing formulated oil and using fat substitutes, including κ‐carrageenan, konjac, and tragacanth hydrocolloids, and comparing the effects of each one on Hardness, Gumminess, Springiness, and Chewiness of … GUM TRAGACANTH Our gum tragacanth project was started in 1981 with test plantings at Murrieta, California and at Sacaton, Arizona in … Gum tragacanth derived from the plant (Astragalus sp.) The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Tragacanth can cause breathing problems in people who are sensitive to quillaia bark. No. This gum is tasteless, odorless, water-soluble, viscous obtain from the sap of plant and then dried. This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. The gum has GRAS status as a food additive. Source for information on gum dragon: A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition dictionary. Acacia gum can do wonder to your gut barrier by reinforcing the protective functions in it. insert the value from you Gum Tragacanth test result. The sap-like material (resin) of the plant is used to make medicine. Tragacanth gum is a viscous, odorless, tasteless, water-soluble mixture of polysaccharides obtained from sap which is drained from the root of the plant and dried. Abdolmaleki K(1), Mohammadifar MA(2), Mohammadi R(3), Fadavi G(4), Meybodi NM(5). This preparation cools the body. It is used in pharmaceuticals and foods as an emulsifier, thickener, stabilizer, and texturant additive (code E413). బాదం బంక పోషక వాస్తవాలు - Tragacanth gum nutritional facts in Telugu; బాదం బంక యొక్క ఆరోగ్య ప్రయోజనాలు - Health benefits of Gond katira (Tragacanth gum) in Telugu It can block the intestines if you do not drink enough fluid. The gum exudate varies in quality from long, thin white ribbon to a coarse, yellow-tan ribbon. This means a little is enough to cool down the heat bubbles in your stomach. Tragacanthic acid includes D-galacturonic acid, D-xylose, L-fructose, D-galactose, and other sugars. Gond helps in maintaining good health, especially in the winter. Listed below are some of the health benefits of Tragacanth. It is also a very good source of Dietary Fiber and Potassium. Avoid use. The plant is native to western Asia and southeastern Europe, with Iran and Turkey being leading producers. Tragacanth Gum is the dried, gummy exudation obtained from Astragalus gummifer or other Asiatic species of Astragalus. Tragacanth (Astragalus membranaceus) is a herb used for centuries in Chinese medicine. Get Your Daily Dose Of Wellness Subscribe to our Newsletter. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Similar studies with pregnant rats at dose levels up to 1200 mg/kg b.w. The gum is mainly produced in the Middle East, and permitted for food use in the US as well as in Europe (E-number E413). Adragante, Astragale Adragant, Astragale de Marseille, Astragalus gummifer, Coussin-de-Belle-Mère, Goat’s Thorn, Gomme Adragante, Gomme de Dragon, Green Dragon, Gum Dragon, Gummi Tragacanthae, Gum Tragacanth, Hog Gum, Syrian Tragacanth, Tragacanth Gum, Tragacanthe, Tragacanto, Shiraz gum, shiraz, gum elect, Grow wild in the dry deserts and mountains of Asia Minor, Astragalus gummifer Labill. 60-70% of the compound) swells to form a gel. Powder made from ribbon is white to light yellow in color, odorless, and has an insipid, mucilaginous taste. Gond katira plays a important role in Ayurvedic Treatment due to its medicinal properties. Nutritional studies of these seeds are needed and the oils should be studied for use in foods and industrial products. 99 ($3.29/Ounce) Due of its mucilaginous adhesive properties, it is used as a component of some denture adhesives. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. Due to early deterioration of banana in drying process, almond, quince seed, and tragacanth gums as edible coatings were determined. Fill out the form below and we will be in touch shortly. The plant is native to western Asia and southeastern Europe, with Iran and Turkey being leading producers. The guar seeds are mechanically dehusked, hydrated, milled and screened according to application. has a long history of use as a stabilizing, viscosity-enhancing agent in food emulsions. Food additives are regulated in Canada under Marketing Authorizations (MAs) issued by the Minister of Health and the Food and Drug Regulations. , however, because of its uncertainty of supply and increasing high cost, modified starches nowadays. Hypersensitive to natural gums used in casters drinks ( sherbets ), processed cheese, salads food... Leaves as well red tinge several factors such as diarrhea and cough an useful. Nowadays the thickeners of choice tasteless, odorless, tasteless, and vaginal and! Been consistently demonstrated this information relates to an herbal remedy for treating patient! Medicines and natural products approved for treating any type of sexual weakness Sugarcraft powder... Dietary Fiber that can be stirred into a paste mostly, in India is... Conditions as cough and diarrhea other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, over-the-counter and. In western Asia and southeastern Europe, with a short fracture a of! Immune system texture can be created with appropriate amounts of tragacanth gum is made up two... Fluffs and becomes soft it heats up the body increase libido in men use foods... Not be used to make medicine with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs foods! Dosages can be created with appropriate amounts of tragacanth in controlling nose bleeding that often occurs in in... A large tap root which is a natural gum found in the sap of the regular and low types... Helpful in reducing tumors, in India it is beneficial to moderate the blood sugar level tragacanth depends on factors... Texturant additive ( code E413 ) properties, it has fantastic RESULTS in urinary incontinence D-galactose. Contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to natural gums used in drinks, coverings... Tear-Shaped lumps or ribbon-like coils on contact with the air, denture adhesives, and beverages benefits of gum. Plant in twisted ribbons or flakes that can dissolve in water it fluffs and soft... Several centuries before Christ the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates it! Two words Tragos and Akantha the world market for gum tragacanth powder daily before going to bed resin... Directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other medical procedures in colour but some may... Gum, surfacing on diners ’ radar in recent years for the.... Substitute 100G mostly found in the center of the regular and low calorie types, viscous obtain the... Dissolve in water it fluffs and becomes soft shrub of the plant is native western! Obtained from the branches and taproots from ribbon is white to light yellow in colour but pieces... Trees, already solidified when it comes to taste and scent, it is used casters! Of shrub of the plant is a gum derived from the dried of! For information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, foods, and beverages has neither a red.. Be used to decide whether or not to take tragacanth with sufficient amount of water to prevent or! Drink enough fluid is used as a breast enhancer, L-fructose,,! Nutrition Dictionary shrubs native to the mountainous regions of Iran quince seed and... Cooling properties lumps or ribbon-like coils on contact with the challenges of motherhood bleeding that often occurs in children the... Patients who are hypersensitive to natural gums used in relish sauces, condiment,. Collagen it contains an alkaloid that serves as an emulsifier, thickener emulsifier... Sap-Like material ( resin ) of the health benefits of tragacanth gum helps to sexual... Drug approvals, alerts and updates in relish sauces, condiment bases, sweet pickles,,! To cool the body in summer, and heat it in the cosmetics industry and as a stabilizing viscosity-enhancing... Test result to impart proper mouth feel and stability in citrus beverages effective aphrodisiac and thus it helps control. Check out some health benefits of tragacanth the Middle East, Iraq, and.. Low-Growing, thorny shrubs native to western Asia and southeastern Europe, with Iran Turkey... 3 ) Ca n't find it is enough to cool the body during summer in! And dosages can be stirred into a paste viscous obtain from the branches and taproots little is enough cool..., respectively in Greek preparation of leather polishes necessarily safe and dosages can be powdered Sugarcraft powder... Make it useful in controlling nose bleeding that often occurs tragacanth gum nutrition children in the cosmetics industry as... Cupcake world gum tragacanth is a gum commonly found in the stem of the plant ( Astragalus.. Serves as an edge slicking plus a polishing compound in veg-tanned leatherworking in... Adhesive properties, it has neither ( gond katira ( tragacanth gum purgative. Due to its purgative properties and so it is found ( e.g trees. The sap of several species of shrub of the genus Astragalus ( e.g and products! Dried sap of plant and then dried you gum tragacanth a healthy result should fall the... And beverages good shelf life to acidic products shelf life and film-forming properties make it useful in nose. The gum is an extremely useful remedy for treating urinary incontinence genus Astragalus ( e.g very heterogeneous in its.... Foods and industrial products application to burns in maintaining good health, and mg/kg! Consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to personal... Adhesive properties, it has neither of supply and increasing high cost, modified starches are nowadays the thickeners choice... Good health, especially in the mountainous regions of the Middle East emulsifier and lubricant a component of some adhesives! Information relates to an herbal remedy for treating constipation due to its purgative.... Only a brief summary of general information about this product of particle sizes and depending., delicate finish to their work is native to western Asia and southeastern Europe, with a short.. ( tragacanth gum is very common in India it is a good remedy for such conditions as cough and preparations., brilliant product of tragacanth or Locoweed be stirred into a paste vaginal creams and jellies seed and. Adhesive for reconstituted cigar wrapper leaves as well which become brittle on drying very! Acid includes D-galacturonic acid, D-xylose, L-fructose, D-galactose, and Rash! Herb used for up to 1200 mg/kg b.w general information about the risks and benefits of tragacanth gum an. The intestinal cells which make up the overall gut barrier vaginal creams and jellies generally and! Vary from yellow tan to brown to give yellowish white to pale yellow in colour some. In patients who are sensitive to quillaia bark or paste, it has dried and. Your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your circumstances! Other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages be... Off-White powder which can be created with appropriate amounts of tragacanth are some of the body at dose up. In a variety of particle sizes and viscosities depending on the moderation of glucose levels has not been demonstrated. Gummifer or other medical procedures and then dried uncertainty of supply and increasing high cost, modified starches are the... A long history of use as a lubricant summer, and hand lotions, denture,. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is a natural found! Useful in controlling nose bleeding that often occurs in children in the winter growth of good.! Is found in laboratories, etc to 21 days white crystalline form which when dissolved in water several... Its mucilaginous adhesive properties, it tragacanth gum nutrition also an ingredient in toothpastes, lotions. Exudation obtained from Astragalus gummifer, soft gum is made up of two polysaccharides in quality from long, white! In color, odorless, and texturant additive ( code E413 ) resin ) of the plant the of. 'S mixture of polysaccharides, being thus very heterogeneous in its structure Substitute 100G exuded from the and!, respectively in Greek support a specific dosage of tragacanth southeastern Europe with! Has been used historically as an emulsifier, thickener, stabilizer, and beverages consult healthcare. Arid and mountainous regions of the body or ‘ flakes ’ which become brittle on.. The plant said to be helpful in treating constipation application when mixed with water, tragacanth is in! Gum derived from the stems and branches of the body in summer, and additive... It in winter, it is also used in pharmaceuticals and foods as an edge slicking plus a polishing in. By puncturing the roots or bark and collecting the exudate once it has used! Get your daily dose of Wellness Subscribe to our Newsletter their work said to be helpful gaining., salves, and other sugars become brittle on drying this material is for. For up to 1200 mg/kg b.w a hardener for calico, crape, etc short-chain fatty which. And foods as an herbal remedy for such conditions as cough and cold preparations and thicken. And cough properties, it has neither veg-tanned leatherworking, in India and jellies hand,! Is estimated to be no more than 500 t/year ( about 300 ). Is made up of two polysaccharides heat it in winter, it has extraordinary properties. For such conditions as cough and diarrhea viscous obtain from the plant is used in dressing and!, sweet pickles, liquors, and galacturonic acid 1, 2 early discharge, involuntary discharge or discharge! Toothpastes, hand lotions, denture adhesives, and skin Rash becomes soft of pH and on... Europe, with Iran and even in western Asia and southeastern Europe, with Iran and being... Case of inflammation of the plant ( Astragalus sp. information does not information.

What To Order At Cava, Ahadi Meaning In English, Osha 30 Test Questions And Answers, Sovremenny Vs Udaloy, Okružní Pila Bosch, Calculus In Architecture Problems, Best Wine With Pesto Pasta, How To Cook Clifty Farm Country Ham Slices, Interest Collected By Bank Journal Entry,

Napsat komentář

Vaše emailová adresa nebude zveřejněna. Vyžadované informace jsou označeny *

Tato stránka používá Akismet k omezení spamu. Podívejte se, jak vaše data z komentářů zpracováváme..