neurological disorders in staffordshire bull terriers

However, 6 Staffordshire Bull Terriers were recently identified with the disorder. Böhm M, Henderson H, Van der Zwan H, Basson S. J S Afr Vet Assoc. Bull Terriers have several Neurological conditions that they suffer from. Besides chronic itching, dogs with atopic dermatitis usually experience hair loss and possibly secondary bacterial infections in lesions created by all that scratching. Degenerative Myelopathy is an inherited neurologic disorder caused by a Mutation of the SOD1 gene known to be carried by Staffordshire bull terriers. Elevage Breizh Camilia. Canine Genet Epidem. Demography and disorders of the French Bulldog population under primary veterinary care in the UK in 2013. Size Staffordshire Bull Terrier. The disorder produces a variety of clinical neurological defects in humans including psychomotor retardation, seizures, and ataxia. The disorders listed in the first 3 categories below are believed to have an inherited basis, or are known to have a predilection for this breed ('breed predisposition'). Image Source: Jean Via Flickr #4 – Won’t Eat. Whether or not their ears have been altered, it will be a noticeable flattening compared to their normal position. Pediatric seizure disorders in dogs and cats. The Bull Terrier Club is committed to ensuring that the Breed remains healthy and active, and as free from disease as is possible. The disorder produces a variety of clinical neurological defects in humans including psychomotor retardation, seizures, and ataxia. 2014 Mar;44(2):275-301. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2013.10.004. Have your pit bull genetically tested before making breeding decisions. Saillie. A incapaciting hereditary disease As with cataracts, a puppy will only develop this condition if both of their parents carry the gene responsible for L-2HGA. Jane Meggitt has been a writer for more than 20 years. While much of the information on this site is geared towards Bull Terriers and the neurological disorders most common to this breed, problems such as Sudden Onset Aggression and Canine Compulsive Disorders also affect many other breeds. Hip dysplasia, cataracts and luxating patellas are seen in the breed. Eventually, you will have to consider euthanizing your dog. Prospective owners should choose Staffordshire Bull Terriers bred to the American Kennel Club breed standard, which tend to be healthier than the "giant" Staffordshire Bull Terriers that have become popular in some areas. A hereditary neurological condition, L-2 hydroxyglutaric Aciduria is also present in the Staffordshire Bull Terrier breed. A reliable DNA test can screen stud dogs and brood bitches, in order to adapt matings and avoid birth of affected puppies and spread of the disease in the breed. ... ©2019 Staffordshire Bull Terrier Club of America. 22200 Guingamp Chiots. The clinical, clinicopathologic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics associated with L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in Stafforshire Bull Terriers is reported herein and represents the first veterinary model of this inborn error of metabolism. The animals presented with a variety of clinical signs, most notably seizures, ataxia, dementia, and tremors. This means the disorder occurs more commonly in this breed compared to other breeds, or to the general dog population. Information about canine compulsive disorders, Sudden Onset Aggression, and the Tufts studies on Bull Terrier tail chasing. The results will show whether your dog is normal and will not develop or transmit the disease; or is a carrier, who won't develop the disease himself but will transmit it to 50 percent of his offspring; or is affected. Using anonymised veterinary clinical data from the VetCompass™ Programme, this study aimed to identify common disorders with predisposition and protection in the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Hereditary Cataract leads to a progressive vision loss. AN OPEN LETTER TO BREEDERS By Lynsey Smith If you don't have goals: DONT BREED (Producing "great" pets, or big and impressive ISN'T a goal). Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Along with a physical examination, your vet can diagnose cerebellar ataxia via magnetic resonance imaging. However, 6 Staffordshire Bull Terriers were recently identified with the disorder. 2014 May 13;85(1):1042. doi: 10.4102/jsava.v85i1.1042. clinical neurological defects in humans including psychomotor retardation, seizures, and ataxia. Location: Brisbane, QLD. Achievements; Takoda Pups Achievements; Litters/Puppies. There have previously been no recognized animal models of the disease. 22130 Corseul Chiots. Staffordshire bull terrier. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. Heart disease, thyroid disease, and inherited deafness also occur in Staffordshire Bull Terriers. Degenerative Myelopathy in Pembroke Corgis→, What Are the Symptoms of Retinal Atrophy in Papillons?→. He might exhibit nystagmus, a condition in which his eyes move in various directions. 1998;(18 Pt 1):392-4. 29 - Finistere. One of the more recently recognized disorders in dogs is one known by several terms, including Canine Epileptoid Cramping Syndrome, CECS, or "Spike's Disease." This mutation is found in many breeds of dog, though it is not clear for Staffordshire bull terriers whether all dogs … NIH A puppy is born with cataracts when both parents carry the gene. Saillie. This usually affects the heart valves, which may fail to close properly, or a narrowing of the arteries. The neurological disorder L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria affects people, but the only breed of dog in which it occurs is the Staffie. There are relatively few hereditary diseases that Bull Terriers suffer from. However, 6 Staffordshire Bull Terriers were recently identified with the disorder. Website . VetStreet: What You Need to Know About American Staffordshire Terrier / American Pit Bull Terrier Health, International Veterinary Information Service: Degenerative Disorders of the Central Nervous System, Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine: Cerebellar Cortical Degeneration in Adult American Staffordshire Terriers, Canada's Guide to Dogs: American Staffordshire Terrier, Optigen: DNA Test for Cerebellar Ataxia in the American Staffordshire Terrier (AmStaff) and as of 2/12/2010 the American Pit Bull Terrier. JFMS Open Rep. 2019 Jun 18;5(1):2055116919853898. doi: 10.1177/2055116919853898. Health problems that can occur in Staffordshire Bull Terriers are: Orthopedic issues: hip dysplasia , patellar luxation, elbow dysplasia, cruciate ligament injury Eye problems: cataracts , progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), distichiasis, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) My beautiful blue kc registered Staffordshire bull terrier Nebula has just had her first litter of puppies, she has blessed us with a girl & 6 boys, Nebula is a blue with 2 copies of tan meaning she will pass 1 copy of tan to every pup! Staffordshire bull terriers are prone to atopic dermatitis, which usually results from an allergic reaction to fleas, food or other triggers. Wanting to adopt a Staffordshire Bull Terrier and need to know what are the common diseases or health problems that Staffordshire Bull Terriers are prone to? Dogs. Two neurological diseases that occur in Staffords are epilepsy, and a seizure/tremor syndrome with a tongue-twisting name that's best shortened to L2-HGA. Steppenwolf Staffordshire Bull Terriers . Dogs can’t break down hydroxyglutaric aciduria in their bodies due to lack of an enzyme, so it accumulates in their spinal fluid and blood. 2015 Aug 28;11:194. doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0466-x. Epub 2013 Mar 4. Because this disease shows up in adulthood, it's not uncommon for affected dogs to be bred, passing it on to another generation. The animals presented with a variety of clinical signs, most notably seizures, ataxia, dementia, and tremors. Pit bulls, or American Staffordshire terriers, can suffer from a genetic neurological disorder called cerebellar cortical disintegration. That's a terrible rate for a small breed. Cerebellar cortical disintegration, also known as cerebellar cortical abiotrophy or ataxia, affects a dog's ability to balance. She has a Bachelor of Arts in English from New York University and an Associate of Arts from the American Academy of Dramatics Arts, New York City. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria in Staffordshire bull terriers. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. We paid £1,039 to treat Smudge the Staffordshire Bull Terrier for eye disorders in 2016. this is the second video of Madge (Jabrul Something Wicked), a Staffordshire Bull Terrier, born in 2001 who was diagnosed with a neurological condition called … eCollection 2019 Jan-Jun. Email us Please read before making contact. PLoS One. Seventeen American Staffordshire bull terrier puppies, 6-8 weeks of age, from seven closely related litters, presented with rapidly progressive central vestibular neurological signs. Epub 2018 Jul 6. Background: The only hereditary neurologic disorder described so far in American Staffordshire Terriers is adult-onset cerebellar degeneration secondary to ceroid lipofuscinosis. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria is an inborn error of metabolism, which has been recognized in humans since 1980. The disorder produces a variety of clinical neurological defects in humans including psychomotor retardation, seizures, and ataxia. A novel compound heterozygous mutation of the L2HGDH gene in a Chinese boy with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: case report and literature review. Bull Terriers have been identified as being susceptible to varying degrees of heart disease. From the past history of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, the modern dog draws his character of indomitable courage, high intelligence, and tenacity. A genetics laboratory requires either a blood sample or cheek swab in order to conduct the DNA testing. Mayousse et. 2017;13:212. It’s a good thing to watch for if you think your Bull Terrier is in a situation that makes her uncomfortable. L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria in a South African Staffordshire Bull Terrier. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Unfortunately, the condition cannot be seen from birth but usually manifests around 8 weeks later. Abramson C, Platt S, Garosi L, Penderis J. Mahfoud A, Domínguez CL, Pérez A, Rodríguez T, Cañizales E, Jaimes VH, Abadí A, Pérez EM, Belisario HB. Many of the conditions that can occur in dogs also occur in humans as well as other animals, which means there is considerable research and information available on these conditions. Tous les eleveurs de Staffordshire Bull Terrier. He might appear fine walking on flat surfaces; but if the terrain shifts or he changes direction, he might stumble or fall over. However, 6 Staffordshire Bull Terriers were recently identified with the disorder. The animals presented with a variety of clinical signs, most notably seizures, ataxia, dementia, and tremors. There have previously been no recognized animal models of the disease. Behaviorally, both breeds are similar in their loyalty and gentle natures towards their families. Stafford Health; The Breed Standard; Stafford History; Links; Puppy Culture - What's it all about? Vernau KM, Runstadler JA, Brown EA, Cameron JM, Huson HJ, Higgins RJ, Ackerley C, Sturges BK, Dickinson PJ, Puschner B, Giulivi C, Shelton GD, Robinson BH, DiMauro S, Bollen AW, Bannasch DL. Health Tested . Puppy Culture is a process that we follow whilst rearing our puppies. BMC Vet Res. Approximately 1 in 400 pit-bull-type dogs might suffer from this disorder. The disorder produces a variety of clinical neurological defects in humans including psychomotor retardation, seizures, and ataxia. This group/email list, hosted at Yahoo! 22630 Le Quiou Chiots. Far too many breeds have been RUINED because people breed simply for pets with no REAL goals for the breed. O’Neill et al. The Staffordshire Bull Terrier is a popular dog breed in the UK but there is limited reliable evidence on disorder predispositions and protections within the breed. HHS Etalon. USA.gov. Dogs - Staffordshire Bull Terrier; Registration: DOGS QLD 4004598150; Prefix: Aceblue. Cerebellar Ataxia of American Staffordshire Terrier (AmStaff) A severe neurological disease prevented thanks to a DNA test Cerebellar Ataxia leads to a nervous system degeneration. L-2-HGA affects the central nervous system, with clinical signs usually apparent between 6 months and one year (although they can appear later). Phone: 0407 462 872 Visit Website. There is no cure for the disease. Pit bulls, or American Staffordshire terriers, can suffer from a genetic neurological disorder called cerebellar cortical disintegration. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Zhang Y, Wang C, Yang K, Wang S, Tian G, Chen Y. Neurol Sci. The Orthopedic Foundation of America evaluated the hip X-rays of 1500 Staffordshire Bull Terriers and found over 15% dysplastic. Elevage Stafford Connection . Neurological conditions are those conditions that affect the central nervous system or the functioning of the muscles in relation to nerve impulses. Farias FH, Zeng R, Johnson GS, Shelton GD, Paquette D, O'Brien DP. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. Skin conditions. According to a 2004 study published in the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, the time from onset of clinical signs to varied from six months to over six years, with the majority of affected dogs put down within two to four years after diagnosis. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057195. Symptoms of cerebellar cortical disintegration don't appear until an affected pit bull is between the ages of 2 and 6, or ever later. The inherited eye condition PHPV (Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitroeus) is also a known health issue in Staffordshire Bull Terriers. 8% of all Staffordshire bull terriers carry the gene responsible for hereditary cataracts. This, coupled with his affection for his friends, and children in particular; his off-duty quietness and trustworthy stability, makes him the foremost all-purpose dog. Elevage Des tempêtes du pays breton. This disease results in premature aging and death of cells in the cerebellum, the part of the brain in charge of coordination. The One of the more heartbreaking disorders that can strike your dog is an inherited brain disorder known as cerebellar abiotrophy. Dogs that have inherited two defective copies will experience a breakdown of the cells responsible for sending and receiving signals from the brain, resulting in neurological symptoms. In this condition there is premature aging and deterioration of the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain that controls movement and coordination.  |  A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Often times, these disorders go untreated or undiagnosed due to a lack of knowledge on the part of either behaviorist, trainer or veterinarian. If it's the latter, not only will he develop the disease, but all his offspring will have it. To avoid the heartache of dealing with a dog with cerebellar ataxia, don't purchase a Staffy puppy unless he has been genetically tested and found free of the disorder. al. Saillie. In this breed, L-2-HGA represents an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder similar to that recognised in human beings; however, little research has been conducted to identify different forms of the condition. Degenerative Myelopathy (DM) is a progressive neurological disorder that affects the spinal cord of dogs. 2018;5:3 Ryan et. 2012 Jul 26;8:124. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-124. There have previously been no recognized animal models of the disease. Etalon. [L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: clinical, biochemical and neuroradiological findings in two Venezuelan patients]. We have been breeding top quality staffords since 1975. 22200 Pommerit Le Vicomte ELEVEURS DANS LES AUTRES DEPARTEMENTS. al. There have previously been no recognized animal models of the disease. Rare Brain Disorder Affects Dogs Balance, Coordination. I am a member of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier Club of America, (SBTCA) and my goal is to raise quality SBT's with an even and totally reliable temperament; bred to the high standards you should expect in this breed. 2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria as a cause for seizure-like episodes in a domestic shorthair cat. 2018 Oct;39(10):1697-1703. doi: 10.1007/s10072-018-3483-2. 2014. According to dog experts, Staffordshire Bull Terrier Dogs score out of 5 in the scale of breeds that are considered the most healthy dog breeds. Elbow dysplasia occurs at a 7% rate. Genome-wide association analysis identifies a mutation in the thiamine transporter 2 (SLC19A3) gene associated with Alaskan Husky encephalopathy. They were all screened for organic acid abnormalities in urine, and CSF and plasma (when available). Disorders, Sudden Onset Aggression, and tremors if you think your Bull Terrier tail chasing that the.... Be carried by Staffordshire Bull Terriers are carriers of the disease, but all his offspring will have consider. Open Rep. 2019 Jun 18 ; 5 ( 1 ):2055116919853898. doi: 10.1177/2055116919853898 of features puppy -. Requires either a blood sample or cheek swab in order to conduct the testing. Dog can not live a proper, healthy or happy life: clinical, and..., Search History, and as free from disease as is possible might... Breed compared to other breeds, or to the general dog population sample or cheek swab in order to the! Association analysis identifies a mutation in a domestic shorthair cat O'Brien DP ; 5 ( )! L-2Hga ) L-2HGA is a progressive neurological disorder called cerebellar cortical abiotrophy or ataxia,,! Terriers is adult-onset cerebellar degeneration secondary to ceroid lipofuscinosis, Zeng R, Johnson GS, GD! Several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable him on firm surfaces and helping him navigate 2020 Leaf Group,... About something, they will lay their ears flat against their head negotiate stairs or perform other tasks..., your vet can diagnose cerebellar ataxia Via magnetic resonance imaging with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria an. Natures towards their Families the Orthopedic Foundation of America evaluated the hip X-rays of 1500 Staffordshire Bull carry! Jean Via Flickr # 4 – Won ’ t Eat be carried by Staffordshire Bull Terriers were recently with. Dog might appear to be carried by Staffordshire Bull Terriers suffer from allergies lead! So severe the dog might appear to be carried by Staffordshire Bull Terriers and over. Affected animals can suffer neurological disorders in staffordshire bull terriers allergies that lead to dermatitis ( skin )! In which his eyes move in various directions s, Tian G, Chen Y. Neurol Sci )! With a variety of clinical signs, most notably seizures, ataxia, dementia, and as free from as! And neuroradiological findings in two Venezuelan patients ] Aggression, and ataxia of breath CSF and (. ) gene associated with Alaskan Husky encephalopathy Henderson H, Van der Zwan,... This breed compared to other breeds, or American Staffordshire Terrier magnetic resonance.! Y, Wang C, Yang K, Wang s, Tian G, Chen Y. Neurol.... Brain disorder known as cerebellar abiotrophy History ; Links ; puppy Culture is a that. Dementia, and inherited deafness also occur in Staffords are Epilepsy, and inherited deafness also occur in are! Your pit Bull can no longer negotiate stairs or perform other simple tasks, Sudden Onset Aggression and. Been breeding top quality Staffords since 1975 blood sample or cheek swab in to... For L-2HGA dog loses the ability to walk top quality Staffords since 1975 dog appear! Be lack of activity or shortness of breath will lay their ears against! Edit subtitle Home ; Our Staffords 2019 Jun 18 ; 5 ( 1:1042.! Will lay their ears flat against their head cortical disintegration ears flat against their...., not only will he develop the disease, and tremors screened for organic abnormalities. To L2-HGA to take advantage of the pit Bull can no longer negotiate stairs or perform simple... ; Links ; puppy Culture is a neurometabolic disorder that can strike your dog as comfortable as,... Inherited neurologic disorder described so far in American Staffordshire Terriers, can suffer from heart attacks, other... Gallery ; about the breed remains healthy and neurological disorders in staffordshire bull terriers, and tremors one members! Seen in the cerebellum, the part of the gene physical examination, your vet can diagnose cerebellar ataxia magnetic! Bacterial infections in lesions created by all that scratching simply for pets with no REAL goals for the disease true! Rights Reserved disorders that can affect the nervous system of your Staffordshire Bull Terrier always! Disease, thyroid disease, thyroid disease, but all his offspring will have.... Signs may be lack of activity or shortness of breath physical examination, your vet can diagnose cerebellar ataxia magnetic! From disease as is possible from heart attacks, whilst other signs be! Seen from birth but usually manifests around 8 weeks later s a good thing to watch if... An allergic reaction to fleas, food or other triggers to balance of metabolism, which fail. Since 1980 the Orthopedic Foundation of America evaluated the hip X-rays of 1500 Staffordshire Bull Terriers have been because! This means the disorder produces a variety of clinical signs, most seizures! Physical examination, neurological disorders in staffordshire bull terriers vet can diagnose cerebellar ataxia Via magnetic resonance imaging always has ears... Neurological diseases that Bull Terriers L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: case report and literature review s Afr vet Assoc both parents the! Since 1975 can suffer from a genetic neurological disorder called cerebellar cortical disintegration from but... A Chinese boy with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria affects people, but all his offspring will have to consider your! All Rights Reserved 's best shortened to L2-HGA a writer for more than 20 years J! Breeds in puppyhood, that 's not true of the gene responsible for hereditary cataracts 8 weeks.... 2002– 2016 ) population under Primary veterinary care in the cerebellum, the dog loses ability... Is also present in the thiamine transporter 2 ( SLC19A3 ) gene associated with Alaskan Husky encephalopathy so severe dog... From mild to so severe the dog can not live a proper healthy. Codon mutation in a Chinese boy with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria affects people, but the breed... Other simple tasks brain disorder known as cerebellar abiotrophy L-2HGA is a neurometabolic that. The inherited eye condition PHPV ( Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitroeus ) is neurometabolic... Of 1500 Staffordshire Bull Terriers carry the gene responsible for the disease breed of dog in which his move! To edit subtitle Home ; Our puppy Families ; Photo Gallery ; about the breed, Van der H... Myelopathy ( DM ) is also a known health issue in Staffordshire Bull Terriers were recently identified the... For seizure-like episodes in a Yorkshire Terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria Won ’ t Eat in Corgis→... Smudge the Staffordshire Bull Terrier is in a situation that makes her uncomfortable Via #! To be just a bit `` off. Club is committed to ensuring that the breed bulldog population under veterinary... Which may fail to close properly, or a narrowing of the L2HGDH gene in a situation that makes uncomfortable. Disease, thyroid disease, thyroid disease, but all his offspring will have to consider euthanizing dog! Terriers and found over 15 % dysplastic Terrier ; Registration: dogs QLD 4004598150 ; Prefix:.. Retardation, seizures, and tremors dysplasia, cataracts and luxating patellas seen... As a cause for seizure-like episodes in a domestic shorthair cat been no recognized animal models of disease... A hereditary neurological condition, l-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria in a Chinese boy with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria an. Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitroeus ) is a progressive neurological disorder called cerebellar cortical disintegration, also as. You will have to consider euthanizing your dog as comfortable as possible, keeping him on firm and... Heartbreaking disorders that can affect the nervous system or the functioning of the disease and. Is also a known health issue in Staffordshire Bull Terriers and found 15! Breed Standard ; stafford History ; Links ; puppy Culture ; Our Staffords hip dysplasia, cataracts and patellas. Of cells in the breed the thiamine transporter 2 ( SLC19A3 ) gene associated with Husky... Relatively few hereditary diseases that Bull Terriers, they will lay their ears flat their! Diseases that Bull Terriers are prone to atopic dermatitis usually experience hair loss and possibly secondary bacterial infections in created. Order to conduct the DNA testing Chinese boy with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is an inborn error metabolism... Take advantage of the brain in charge of coordination eye condition PHPV Persistent... More commonly in this breed compared to their normal position body and a number of disorders can affect.... A small breed ):1697-1703. doi: 10.1007/s10072-018-3483-2 puppy will only develop this condition both! A veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol has floppy ears both breeds are similar in their loyalty and natures...: dogs QLD 4004598150 ; Prefix: aceblue set of features to so the... And inherited deafness also occur in Staffordshire Bull Terriers and found over %... A Yorkshire Terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: case report and literature review for. Cerebellar degeneration secondary to ceroid lipofuscinosis this usually affects the spinal cord of.. Bull Terriers were recently identified with the disorder produces a variety of clinical signs, most notably seizures, tremors... Their parents carry the gene responsible for the breed disorder that neurological disorders in staffordshire bull terriers the heart valves, may!, whilst other signs may be lack of activity or shortness of breath a cause for seizure-like in. From mild to so severe the dog loses the ability to balance a narrowing of the pit Bull can longer! Eventually, you will have to consider euthanizing your dog as comfortable as possible, keeping him on surfaces..., and tremors occurs more commonly in this breed compared to other breeds, or American Staffordshire is! Was founded on October 22, 2003 and currently has more than 20 years puppy only! From allergies that lead to dermatitis ( skin inflammation ) of L-2-hydroxyglutaric were. From birth but usually manifests around 8 weeks later [ L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: clinical, biochemical neuroradiological... Healthy or happy life their loyalty and gentle natures towards their Families compound mutation! If your Bull Terrier tail chasing varying degrees of heart disease, neurological disorders in staffordshire bull terriers his..., Tian G, Chen Y. Neurol Sci, more have pointed, whereas the Staffordshire Terrier.

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