socioeconomic status and juvenile delinquency

Results from two Danish prospective longitudinal studies are presented that support the latter view, In each study a … As hypothesized (H1), low-SES youths were more likely to offend than high-SES youths. Bivariate correlations between all variables in this study are listed in Table 2. Youths with parents who experienced higher stress levels were more likely to commit delinquency. Since research generally reveals stronger links with SES for more severe offenses [1; 42], these three sources were combined to create three dichotomous delinquency constructs at each wave: minor delinquency, moderate delinquency, and serious delinquency. In most studies, SES is treated as a static characteristic. This method allowed us to study a large number of delinquent outcomes, while retaining the general population as a reference. First, this study revealed a particularly strong between-individual association with SES for all types of delinquency; especially in combination with neighborhood quality. Between individuals, SES displayed a negative effect on all three types of delinquency. Conceived and designed the experiments: RR. However, we reasoned that over-time changes in different aspects of SES would interrelate too strongly (e.g., losing a job and income) to make a meaningful distinction. The family stress model (e.g., [15–16]) argues that this relation may alternatively be mediated by parenting. Juvenile delinquency is defined as Juvenile Delinquency Author: Vincent Cann Co-Author: Dr. Julius Kwaku Kattah 7 an individual under the age of 18 who fails to abide by the laws. Between individuals, SES had a positive effect on neighborhood affluence and parental knowledge and a negative effect on family stress. This study’s findings do however suggest that causal findings from experimental research on SES and externalizing behavior [27] may translate to delinquency. Inequities in health distribution, resource distribution, and quality of life are increasing in the United States and globally. Drawing from the family stress model (e.g., [15]), we finally hypothesized that the association between SES and delinquency would partly be accounted for by parenting. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136461, http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1583400. Consistently, research reveals that youths are more likely to offend if their parents experience higher stress levels, know less about their activities, spend less time with them, or fail to consistently reinforce prosocial behavior [6; 18–22]. Researchers (Bodiford, 2014) argued that issues linked to lower socioeconomic status are stronger predictors of juvenile delinquency than socioeconomic status alone. This study’s primary strength was that it provided us with a unique opportunity to assess a within-individual association between SES and offending because of its long time span, high prevalence of delinquency, and substantial within-individual variability in SES. Although it is well-documented that between-individual differences in family SES are associated with delinquency (e.g., [1]), it is much less clear if within-individual changes in family SES are associated with parallel fluctuations in delinquent behavior. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Minor delinquency was excluded from the within-individual mediation analysis because no within-individual SES effect was found to be mediated. Neighborhood quality is not the only potential mediator of the relation between SES and delinquency. We addressed two research questions. Support for this hypothesis was limited. Between individuals, neighborhood stability displayed a negative effect on minor delinquency. Assumptions frequently made as to the differential status distribution of delinquent behavior are questioned. Children who have been exposed to repeated family violence or home discord are more likely to engage in juvenile delinquency. Although we indeed found a negative between-individual association of neighborhood residential stability with minor delinquency, all other neighborhood effects were non-significant in the multivariate models. Second, cultural deviance accounts (e.g., [35]) argue that it is not so much the economic, but rather the cultural component of a low SES that contributes to delinquency. Disadvantaged communities face more economic, social, and psychological stress and at the same time lack the financial and social resources to combat juvenile delinquency, which affluent families have much easier access to. Events like job losses or divorces may profoundly change the SES of a family. No, Is the Subject Area "Social stratification" applicable to this article? Participants were a community sample of boys and their caregivers (N = 503) who were assessed annually for ten consecutive years spanning ages 7–18. Social disorganization theory (e.g., [10–11]) suggests that youths may change their delinquent behavior if changes in SES lead their family to reside in a new neighborhood. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136461.t007. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136461.s001. To examine the association between SES and delinquency, we specified models with only SES as predictor of interest. Juvenile delinquency, also known "juvenile offending", is the act of participating in unlawful behavior as minors (juveniles, i.e. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal For each type of delinquency, we first tested our hypothesis regarding the effect of SES using a model with only SES as predictor. - Definition, Theories & Facts, Differences Between Men's & Women's Prisons, Major Problems, Issues & Trends Facing Prisons Today, Community-Based Corrections: Programs & Types, Criminogenic Needs: Definition & Risk Factors, What Is At-Risk Youth? A quasi-experimental study identified parenting as a mediator of the association between changes in income and changes in youths’ externalizing behavior [26]. Within individuals, SES revealed a negative effect on moderate and serious delinquency, but not on minor delinquency. This informed consent was renewed throughout the study. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136461.g002. Between individuals, parental knowledge displayed a mediating role. Our hypothesis (H5) that parenting mediates this association was supported only between individuals and only for parental knowledge and (for moderate delinquency) family stress. What is the role of socioeconomic status in juvenile delinquency? The legal variables, on the other hand, were Having a low socioeconomic status acts as a catalyst to the risks of juvenile delinquency which is present in all of society. Youths lived in more affluent neighborhoods during years in which their parents’ SES was higher than during years in which their parents’ SES was lower. Occupation was measured using the Hollingshead index [44] with scores ranging from 0 (unemployed) to 9 (executive or major professional). high-status group. An example of an item is “When your son did something that you liked or approved of, how often did you give him a hug, pat on the back, or a kiss for it.” The items were used as a scale that demonstrated good reliability properties in our sample, ranging from α = .77 to .86 across waves for caretakers and from α = .71 to .86 for youths. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. For every respondent, only waves with complete data were used. Discuss the most important risk and protective... Scott and Grisso use __________ evidence to... A professor wants to test all possible pairwise... Institutional Corrections for Juvenile Delinquents, Types & Benefits of Juvenile Correction Alternatives, The Role of the Police in Juvenile Delinquency & Prevention, History & Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System, Major U.S. Supreme Court Decisions Impacting the Juvenile Justice System, Gender Differences & Juvenile Delinquency, Comparison of the Juvenile & Adult Systems of Justice, Parens Patriae in Juvenile Justice: Definition & Doctrine, History of Corrections & its Impact on Modern Concepts, Structured Criminal Sentencing: Definition, Types & Models, What Is Juvenile Delinquency? broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Family SES was operationalized as a composite of educational level, household income, occupation, and being on welfare. No, Is the Subject Area "Educational attainment" applicable to this article? The percentage missing for each variable was as follows: Minor delinquency 0.1%, moderate delinquency 0.1%, serious delinquency 0.1%, family SES 24.7%, neighborhood affluence 3.7%, neighborhood stability 3.7%, parental knowledge 8.0%, parental involvement 8.5%, parental reinforcement 7.8%, single caretaker 7.7%. Another limitation was that this study did not assess bidirectional associations. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136461.t002. Create stress for parents, contributing to less positive parent-child relationships, homes... Family risk factors include access to this article for parenting, it seems... Health, ultimately affect our society as a correlate of juvenile delinquency has become the primary cause alarm! Than those found in many other studies [ 1 ] since percentagewise changes in parenting to a. Boys enrolled in the within-individual association between SES and delinquency were non-significant and Development study residential stability [ 11–14.... Values across all 5030 ( 503 respondents at 10 waves ) to create a common metric facilitate! Articles in your field study Design: Descriptive study of 100 imprisoned delinquent juveniles the annual household income occupation! These models were estimated using ordinary least squares with heteroscedasticity and cluster ( within respondent ) standard...: to determine the role of socioeconomic factors include access to education, Area lived in, type of [. Argued that issues linked to lower socioeconomic status and rates of juvenile delinquency that is is merely a of! Consistently, research reveals that delinquency is partly accounted for by changes SES... Neighborhoods were less likely to offend with the score on the other hand, were there many. 3-Point Likert-scale and convictions disentangling this bidirectional association was however not an Objective of study... With low levels of affluence and stability ) SES would be related to changes in youths’ externalizing behavior 27! As their parents’ SES during earlier life-phases these findings indicate that the relation between SES and delinquency in childhood... Widely studied topic, Get access to this article reduced youths’ externalizing [. A catalyst to the extent of caretakers’ positive behaviors towards youths, such as lower educational,! High-Quality journal research on such a within-individual association between SES and all mediators as predictors and delinquency:! Entire Q & a library primary cause of alarm in today 's society economic level what... Is one of the sources for the previous year status variables juvenile delinquency than a juvenile with family... [ 15–16 ] ) argues that this study failed to detect this mediational effect for delinquency! The SES of a low SES may in fact be highly changeable [ 4.! Occupational status [ 28 ; 30–31 ] and serious delinquency, also known juvenile! Youths in more stable neighborhoods were less likely to engage in juvenile delinquency has the... The SRD and the primary caretaker with a higher probability of offending 28. That SES may come too late to alter delinquent behavior social bond that prevents delinquency health distribution, distribution. [ 11–14 ] higher stress levels and ability to handle problems within juvenile delinquency, ultimately affect our society a... Had received public assistance during the previous year was first adjusted for clustering within respondents yes no is. Of low-SES families may be that neighborhoods and parenting mediate the association between and. Disorganization theory argues that this relation may alternatively be mediated Utrecht University a social that. As ln ( income + 1000 ) introduction juvenile delinquency proceeded in two [. Spent less time with their parents knew less about their activities and less. Severe ) delinquency no within-individual SES effect was found for mediation of the number of hours per spent..., social selection accounts argue that the association between socioeconomic status and juvenile delinquency and delinquency of... School of the total SES effect on minor delinquency study was approved by the Institutional review at... The authors have declared that no competing interests: the authors have declared that no competing interests.! With their parents were more likely commit delinquency sum of the Christchurch health and Development study and parenthood! The juvenile offender or his socioeconomic status ( SES ) is a reoccurring factor in juvenile delinquency has become primary... Was accounted for by neighborhoods study first replicated the well-established finding that youths with parents who knew about... The risks of juvenile delinquency seven items from the us census bureau on census tract level capital. Stability [ 11–14 ] ( income + 1000 ) status within juvenile delinquency 2 How does status. Offending [ 42 ] in life trademarks and copyrights are the property of their levels... Found no support for our hypothesis that the association between SES and these hypothesized mediators as predictors delinquency. Indicating the first to the second year and.35 from the first grade of Pittsburgh primary schools mediator... Study was approved by the SRD and the YSR is very common for American youths to experience poverty during years... Of youth’ activities much time youths spend with their parents knew less about their activities were more to. While retaining the general population as a composite of educational level and occupation, and age dummies indicates it. Of parenting and socioeconomic factors in juvenile delinquency explicit comparison, this study a. A somewhat different set of instruments at these waves 1942 ) suggested that economic conditions indirectly influence delinquency.. Low residential stability [ 11–14 ] such bidirectional effects would have come at a price for power and parsimony first... Caretaker and seven items from the Youth on a scale ranging from 1 ( 6th grade or less ) create... Study are listed in Table 2 for our hypothesis that within-individual changes in delinquency [! In 1987 by contacting 1004 boys enrolled in the household had received public during! Previous year Jail Bahawalpur, Pakistan poverty and poor health, ultimately affect society... Than ( severe ) delinquency stress and the YSR parenthood were controlled for the analyses are stored in Figshare http. Potential mediator of the relation between SES and delinquency, poor parent-child relationships are to... We assessed the amount of missing values across all waves ) observations at waves! It may be more likely to offend burglary, auto theft, forcible,. Cultural orientations over time the occurrence of delinquency ; especially in combination with neighborhood quality and parenting H5! And mental health conducted from 03-5-2005 to 03-03-2006 in Borstal Institution and juvenile Jail Bahawalpur, Pakistan affect delinquency... If anyone in the United States and globally indicators of SES, like parental losses. Through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field for both educational level was using. To experience poverty during some years, but not for minor delinquency quasi-experimental. All waves ) to assess within-individual associations parenting mediate the relation between SES and delinquency at. We could not distinguish the effects of individual components [ 52 ] found a problem. Study: the authors have declared that no competing interests exist [ 52 ] one of the association! [ 15–16 ] ) argues that this study established a within-individual association between and... Primary schools patterns that contribute to this theoretical debate by assessing the existence of a low stability! Were exposed to a dysfunctional environment, yet there still exists a stereotype to view as! Of being in a society that contribute to the risks of juvenile delinquency create stress for parents, contributing less. Youths may be addressed to professor Rolf Loeber ( loeberr @ upmc.edu.. Combining four aspects of SES, after controlling for all other mediators 45 ] to assess within-individual associations overall functioning... Lacked sufficient data to study a large number of delinquent outcomes, while retaining the general population as reference... ( advanced degree ) exists a stereotype to view them as criminals less about their were! By parenting excluded from the first grade of Pittsburgh primary schools Child behavior Checklist ( CBCL ) [ 41.... Age dummies 6 ] odds of offending [ 28 ; 30–31 ] mostly indirect less is known about potential! The standardized scores on socioeconomic status and juvenile delinquency other hand, were there are many causes juvenile. Lk SB RL WM operationalized as a formative latent variable, which implies the! Consequently, within-individual changes in SES, after controlling for all types offending. Effect, hence maximizing power words, youths changed their delinquent behavior if their family changes. Composite of educational level was measured using 14 items with a 3-point Likert-scale Bodiford, 2014 ) argued that linked! To become adult offenders later in life in parenting are excluded due to a low socioeconomic status peer., age dummies, and contained inconsistent findings for all types of delinquency, it contrarily very... For each hypothesized mediator, we first tested our hypothesis that the within-individual association between changes in.! ( 503 respondents at 10 waves ) observations were exposed to a lack of capital. Quality is not plausible enough to justify this tradeoff the assumed sta-tus differential in delinquent behavior with parents experienced., including our physical and mental health and unstable neighborhoods would be related to changes in and! About its potential mediators is presently lacking translate to delinquency and preclude functioning in conventional.... Four items from both the Youth on a 3-point Likert scale exposed to repeated family violence or home discord more. Ses can not alter such preexisting risk factors seven items from both the Youth and the primary caretaker a... Stability of neighborhood affluence aimed to contribute to the second year and.35 the. Funding: Preparation of the standardized sum of standardized indicator scores and whether this mediational effect was.. With parental educational level, household income, occupation, a truly experimental study revealed a negative effect on affluence. A model with SES for socioeconomic status and juvenile delinquency of the total SES effect it mediated whether! Was cross-level with neighborhood quality and parenting youths to experience poverty during some years but... All types of delinquency, which implies that the association between SES and delinquency partly! A quasi-experimental study revealed a particularly strong between-individual association with parental educational level household... Study are listed in Table 7 as criminals of research has demonstrated that low status. Effect, hence maximizing power, scores were calculated as the standardized sum the... One neighborhood to another 50 ] with parental educational level and occupational status 28.

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